Understanding the needles is very important to understand the loans and investment required or make a regular payment, for example, the amount of mortgage I can pay if I can only pay $ 1,000 per month? How much will I have in my account if the US $ 2,000 deposit in the first 30 years and I get an annual interest rate of 5%, but it hardens every day? A needle is a series of similar payments at the same time. In general, the period is 1 year, so it is called rent, but this period may be shorter, or even more, these similar payments are called periodic leasing for lease Rent periodically periodically. The amount of needle is the sum of all payments. Expired pension is a allowance in which payments are made at the beginning of each period.
Payment will be made for a regular allowance at the end of the period. Most needles are normal pensions similar to the future value and the current value of a dollar, future values ​​and current values ​​of fixed rates, which, the value of the items Payments are completed at a certain point in the future simply the total value of each payment, the equation for the future value of pensions is the sum of the geometric chain: fvad = a (1 + r) 1 + a (1 + r) 2 + a (1 + r) n The equation of the future value of the normal pension is the sum of the geometric chain: fvoa = a (1 + r) 0 + A (1 + r) 1 + a (1 + r) n -1 simply remember that the future value of a needle is the sum of geological chains without the expansion of the sets The three are mentioned above, and these money can be simplified for the following formulas, so A = payment for rent or regular rental, r = r = interest rate per period and n = number The amount of time for future values ​​of normal pensions (FVOA) is: The future value of a regular needle formula (FVOA) fvva = a × (1 + r) n - 1r and the future value of the appropriate pension (FVAD) loud = a × (1 + r) n - 1r + a (1 + + r) n - A sign that the difference between fvad and fvoa: fvad = 0 + a (1 + r) 1 + a (1 + r) 2 is + + a (1 (1 + R) n -1+ a (1 + r) n fvoa = a (1 + r) 0 + a (1 + r) 1 + a (1 + r) 2 + + a (1 + r) n -1 + 0 formula formula - fvvoa = a (1 + r) n - a (1 + r) 0 = a (1 + r) n - a (Mathematics Note: x0 = 1) In other words, The difference is that the interest collected in the final ingredient, paid by a regular allowance is made at the end of the period, the final payment does not have a profit interest, while the payment is Finally a needle in the last PE of Riod for example, the stimulating component: calculating the amount of 6 composed monthly % at the end of 10 years? A = $ 100 r = 6% per year of the compound month, what = 5% interest per month = 005 n = The amount of component time = 120 in 10 years 005) 120 -1) / 005 = $ 16,38793 Example: Calculating the pension amount if the savings deposit at the beginning of the month instead of the end, there is an additional amount = A (A (A ((( A (A (A (A (A (A (A (A (A (A (A (A (A (A (A (A (A (A (A (A (A (A (A ( A (A (A (A (A (A (A (A (A (A (A (A (A (A (1 + R) N -A = 100 (1005) 120-100 = 8194 $ $ , in this example is between rent and examples of a regular allowance: Calculation of rental payment or periodic rental, a 20 -year -old child he retires in a millionaire when he 70 years old (with a developing life and social security fund has been exhausted by people who explode children, retirement age will increase if there is no exception at the time it will come 65 years. In fact, high high More than 70, how much you have to save at the end of each month if you can earn an annual 5%connection, tax exemption to have 1,000,000 USD if you are 70 years old? The pension of 3 independent variables we are the value of 3 of the b Dear, we can determine the remaining variable, because R = 5% = 05 and N = 50, the concern coefficient (1 + R) n - 1) / R = (10550 - 1) / 05 = 20935, Rounded with 2 decimal numbers to find A, we divide the two sides of the equation for the future value of pension for this interest rate containing 1,000,000 / 20935 = 4.77669 $, so it must save $ 4 , 7769 per year or $ 3,9806 per month to have US $ 1,000,000 for 50 years, assuming that of course, it is a financial participation that can be economical! Of course, we found that in 50 years of inflation 3%in 50 years of using the value of $ 1,000,000 worth $ 1,000,000/10350 = 228,0708! OH! How much will it earn after 50 years, because the current IRA contribution is $ 2,000 per year, provided that US $ 2,000 is sent at the end of the year? Fvoa = 2,000 * (10550 - 1) / 05 = 418 69599 $ "S today" is assuming what is 3%inflation? 418 69599/10350 = $ 95,50752! Obviously, Ira's contribution limit must increase significantly. You can save all the money at the beginning of the year and finally, and this appropriate pension creates an additional (using the previous rental formula) 2000 * 10550 - 2,000 = $ 20,93480, a one. Again is the inflation rate of the 3 dollars today %, = 20,93480 / 1 USD 38 In addition to money in "Solare today in a regular rent, but it is clear that eating dog food when you withdraw money with this amount, unless you choose the investments that can provide something suitable. For retirement! current values ​​and current values ​​and PVA (PVA (PVA) is the current total value of each pension pension of the current pension is the current value of each payment later : The current value of pension (assessment of pva -∑) pva = n ∑ k = 1 a (1 + i) k pva = the current value of the amount a = payment of rent i = interest for each interest for each Stage n = Number of time period The total number of this geometry process may be if it is determined for: the current value of the Annuity formula (PVA) PVA = A × 1 - 1 (1 + R) For example: Calculating the current value of a Kim year, looking forward to a lot of $ 1,000,000 paid annually. Almente, whenever I can really win over 20 years for 20 years. Each year? Solution: Because you do not receive immediately Immediately pay 1,000,000 USD, but in the form of pension, its actual value is the value of cash much less = 50,000 * (1 - (1 + 05) - 20) / 05 = $ 623 , 11052 Example: How many loans can you pay? You want to get a mortgage, but you can only pay USD 1,000 every month. How much can you lose if the interest rate is 5% per year for mortgage 30 years old? Solution: Monthly payment is a valuable allowance of the loan amount = 1 - (1 + 004166667) -360) / 00416667 = 186,2816 $ R = monthly interest rate = 05/12 = 00416667 The number of months in 30 years = 12 × 30 = 360 Mathematical Report: Y-X = 1 / YX Example: Calculation of the monthly payment of the mortgage you want to borrow $ 200,000 to buy a house is 6% for 30%. Solution: In the previous example, we ask the necessary level to save $ 1,000,000 per month or a year for 50 years. In other words, what periodical payments should we make to get the future value of $ 1,000,000? Here we make a loan, and that's why we have money, including the current value or the decrease value, = the monthly loan payment will be pension payment . Therefore, we use the equation for this. Because the current value is known and we need to know how much payment will be if the loan term is 30 years and the interest rate is 6% per year because we know 3 of the 4 variables, but not Must be one, monthly payment, we can solve the two sides of the current value of the rental equation through the coefficient (1 - (1 + r) -N) / R of the National Assembly group, and due to That we can simplify more: the current payment formula A = PV1 -(1 + R) -NR = PV × R1 -(1 + R) -N formula for monthly payment of a loan a a a a = monthly payment or PV -NNUIT payment = the current value or the amount of sleep p r = interest rate per period n = frequency displayed an example of payment for rent a = 200,000 × 0051 -(1 + 005) -360 = 1,191 USD per month, interest rate per month = 06/12 = 005 The number of mons eaten in 30 years = 12 × 30 = 360 Calculate the ratio D and the interest . We ended our discussion about pension determined that you know how to pay pension, the amount of time and the current value, we can only estimate. In the last case, interest rates are the place where the line, representing the payment interest rates regularly in the same amount, but many times the payments related to the payments are not the same and The time between payment may vary. In this case, the current value of pensions must be calculated by adding the current value of each payment. These uneven payments are sometimes called the mixed line: the current value of the mixed flow = the total value of each payment, there are many commercial investments of the whole cash flow. And cash vehicles, if a company wants to invest, one of the main factors to determine whether the investment may have a common capital yield, not only the cash flow is uneven, but one The number of cash flows received and other lines are not paid extra, some cash flows will not be sure, and the tax of some transactions can also affect the current value of the inputs and the investment results, Especially a longer period of time to decide whether it is H Andelt's commercial investment, the company calculates what is called the current net value (VA) of the investment, is the value. The clear net of all cash inputs, the valve is positive, then the investment is considered valid, the car can also be calculated for certain investments to X. Which investment is the highest net yield value = the current total value of cash: The total value of the current value of cash trips into the long -term investment budget into businesses, the rate The necessary output is called the ratio of obstacles or the discount rate and must be more or higher than the additional capital cost (also known as the capital cost limit), which is linked to the average of the cost. net value. At 0 and then Sate Z discount, achieving this result, if IRR is required ≥ ≥ ≥, then the project will be available if IR is invested ≥ Dr investment, if the internal increasing classification formula (IRR ) NPV = CF0 + CF1 (1 + Tir) 1 + See 2 (1 + IR) 2 + + CFN (1 + IRR) N = 0 CF = Cash flow of the initial investment n = Number of cash flows, fertilizers The type is difficult to calculate, but most spreadsheets have a formula that the discharge is calculated. The existing and future values ​​with PV, NPV and FV functions in Microsoft Excel Microsoft Office Excel and Free OpenOffice Calc to calculate the needle and calculate the current net value of Microsoft Excel and OpenOffice Calc Calc: PV, VNI and FV current value = PV (ratio, amount of time, payment, future value, type) AT, value 2),) value in the future = FV (interest rate, number of time period , payment, payment, current value, type) interest rate = download ratio or interest rate within the decimal number of the period = Number of payment time = The regular payment if you are the same Let's enter some sounds if you pay them. Positive if you get without payment, let it empty and only enter the future value or the current value, depending on the formula using future value = the value of an investment. At the end of the term, if it expects the future value and enter it as some sounds. Positive if you expect the future value of the current value if you receive the type of information = if the payment is done at the beginning of the time period or at the end of 0 = Pay at the end of the time period 1 = Payment is done at the beginning of the value of phase 1, Value2, = the value of the payments, if the payments may be observed unevenly, both values ​​have been, depending on Depending on investment examples : Using Microsoft Office Excel or OpenOffice Calc, for the current value and to calculate the future value of investments. These formulas also have the same formula that works in OpenOffice calculation, but the values ​​are separated from half of the color instead of coma to summarize the general format: Excel: = PV (PV (interest rate, number number The amount of time, payment, payment, FV, 0 or 1) = FV (interest rate, number of time, payment, PV, 0 or 1) CALC: = PV (interest rate; math; fv; 0 or 1) = fv (ratio interest rates; amount of time; Pay; PV; 0 or 1) 0 = Payment at the end of the period; 1 = Payment at the beginning of the stage; If it is ignored, it is accepted or if a variable is not valid, just insert a comma or an additional set to not specify any value for this variable, you are 30 years old and want to assume. 1,000,000 we are 3%today? The current value is from 1,000,000 to 65 years = PV (003,35 ,, 100000) = 355.38340 Note what Ira will be like if you retire at 65, pay at the end of each year and the exchange rate is constant is 5 years? At the beginning of each year? If he had $ 10,000 in his anger after 25 years? Future values ​​paid at the end of each year = FV (005,40, -4000 ,,) = 483,1910 USD takes into account the payment of $ 4,000 in the form of negative value, because they pay this amount and not not Get future value. Pay at the beginning of each year = FV (005.40, -4000 ,, 1) = $ 507,35905 if you pay at the beginning of each year and not at the end, you will receive 24,1595 US dollars for the future Retirement when paying, but have been registered with 10,000 USD = FV (005.40, -4000, -10000.1). ) = Note 577,75894 $ "and only for education, not for commercial purposes or professional consulting books by William Spaululing: Paupe R's money book for money managed to improve his life. More, investing and investing for each economy is more than the principle: Introduction of enlightenment on micro economy, macroeconomic, international economy and behavioral economy, a guide to the background. 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